Sunday, June 10, 2012

பாசுரம்: திருப்பாவை THIRUPPAVAI PAASURAM

The Thirupavai is a collection of thirty stanzas (paasuram) in Tamil written by Andal, in praise of the God Tirumal or Vishnu. Thiruppavai is part of Divya Prabandha, a work of the twelve Alvars, and Tirupavai important in Tamil literature.

According to Andal one should give up luxuries during this season. Sincere prayers to the God would bring abundant rain and thus prosperity. Offering Lord Krishna fresh flowers would expiate sins committed earlier and those that may be committed in future.

The Thiruppavai also includes 3 thaniyans (literally, ‘singletons’ or stand alone verses) composed by later authors to introduce older texts. The first tanniyan, ‘Nila tungastana…’ in Sanskrit was composed by Parasara Pattar, and the next two tanniyans, ‘Anna vayal pudhuvai…’ and “Choodi kodutha…” were composed by Sri Uyyakondar.

அன்ன வயற்புதுவை ஆண்டாள் அரங்கற்கு(ப்)
பண்ணு திருப்பாவை (ப்) பல்பதியம்
இன்னிசையால் பாடிக்கொடுத்தாள் நற்பாமாலை
பூமாலை சூடி(க்) கொடுத்தாளை(ச்) சொல்லு

anna vayaRpudhuvai aandaaL arangaRku(p)
pannu thiruppaavai(p) palpadhiyam
innisaiyaal paadikkoduththaaL naRpaamaalai
poomaalai soodi(k) koduththaaLai(ch) chollu

சூடி(க்) கொடுத்த சுடர்(க்) கோடியே தொல்பாவை
பாடி அருளவல்ல பல்வளையாய்
நாடி நீ வேங்கடவற்கு என்னை விதி ஒன்ற இம்மாற்றம்
நாங்கடவா வண்ணமே நல்கு.

soodi(k) koduththa sudar(k) kodiyE tholpaavai
paadi aruLavalla palvaLaiyaay
naadi nee vEngadavaRku ennai vidhi onRa immaatram
naangadavaa vaNNamE nalgu.

மர்ப்க்ழி (த்) திங்கள் மதி நிறைந்த நன்னாளால்
நீராட(ப்) போதுவீர் போதுமினோ நேரிழையீர்
சீர் மல்கும் ஆய்ப்பாடி(ச்) செல்வ(ச்) சிறுமீர்காள்
கூர்வேய் கொடுந்தொழிலன் நந்தகோபன் குமரன்
ஏரார்ந்த கன்னி யசோதை இளம் சிங்கம்
கார் மேனி செங்கண் கதிர் மதியம் போல் முகத்தான்
நாராயணனே நமக்கே பறை தருவான்
பாரோர் புகழ(ப்) படிந்தேலோர் எம்பாவாய்

maargazhi(th) thingaL madhi niRaindha nannaaLaal
neeraada(p) pOdhuveer pOdhuminO nErizhaiyeer
seer malgum aayppaadi(ch) chelva(ch) chiRumeergaaL
koorvEl kodundhozhilan nandhagOpan kumaran
Eraarndha kaNNi yasOdhai iLam singam
kaar mEni cengaN kadhir madhiyam pOl mugaththaan
naaraayaNanE namakkE paRai tharuvaan
paarOr pugazha(p) padindhElOr empaavaai

LITERAL MEANING (by Dr. V. K. S. N. Raghavan)
“It is the good full Moon day of the month of Marghazhi.
Oh the well ornamented maidens!
Those desirous of taking the bath (in the YamunA) may please come on.
Oh the prosperous young girls of AaypAdi (Gokulam) that is rich and grand (in beauty and wealth)! Lord NaarAyana will surely yield to us alone the drum (paRai).
He is the son of King NandagOpa, of cruel deeds (towards the enemies), and holding a sharp spear in his hand always.
He (KrishNa) is the young lion-cub of Queen YasOdhA with very charming eyes.
He (Lord NaarAyaNa) has a dark cloud-like divine complexion, (lotus like) reddish eyes and (lustrous) face (shining) like the bright Sun and Moon.
(This Lord NaarAyaNan alone is the Saviour).
(Let us) resort (to Him) performing the Paavai-Nonbhu and get the benefit of praise from the people of the world.
(Oh dear friend, may You recite and learn this) - know the purport of this hymn}.

Mention may be made of the slOkam of Bhagavath GitA: “mAsAnAm mArgasirshOham” - X. 35)
Lord NaarAyanan alone will grant Moksha SaamrAjyam to the individual soul” is indicated in the seventh line of this First paasuram”.

  1. The sacred Month of Marghazhi has Kesavan (the first of the 12 Upa-VyUha Moorthys) as the presiding deity. Therefore, any Vratham, charity (dhAnam), SnAnam, AarAdhanam performed in Marghazhi will quickly yield fruits according to Swamy Desikan (Taathparya Chandrikai). That desired fruit is Parai or nithya kaimkaryam in His SaamrAjyam (Sri Vaikuntam).

  2. Swamy JnaanyaachAr summarizes the significance of the message of this paasuram as “PrApya PrApakangaL iraNDum NAARAYANANE”.

  3. “yElOrempAvAi” This refrain is the Chandas for the Nonbhu according to Swamy JananAycchAr. Upanishad BhAshyakArar recognizes this Makutam of ThiruppAvai as “Paadha PoorNArtham”.

  4. “PaRai TaruvAn”: As the Purushan with the greatest affection for His Pathivrathai wife, Sriman NaarAyaNan will bless us with the requirements (tools) for Kaimkaryam and Ubhaya anushtAnam such as Jn~Anam, Seelam and other auspicious Aathma GuNams
    - (Sri Abhinava Desikan).

  5. “NaarAyaNanE--TharuvAn”: Lord NaarAyaNan Himself, the inner meaning of Thiru AshtAksharam, will bless the ChEthanams (MakArArtha Jeevans)-- after being pleased with their AshtAkshara Japam - will perform UpAya anushtAnam for them (through a SadAchAryan).
    - (Sri Abhinava Desikan).

  6. yEkAram in “NaarAyaNanE” and “NamakkE”: This yEkAram asserts that “SadhArchanE TantharuLa Vallan; SathsishyanE PeRatthahunthavan” (The SadAchAryan ALONE can bless us; the sath-sishyan alone is qualified to receive that rarest of blessings)
    - (Sri PBA Swamy).

வையத்து வாழ்வீர்காள் நாமும் நம்பாவைக்கு(ச்)
செய்யும் கிரிசைகள் கேளீரோ பாற்கடலுள்
பைய() துயின்ற பரமனடி பாடி
நெய்யுண்ணோம் பாலுண்ணோம் நாட்காலே நீராடி
மையிட்டு எழுதோம் மலரிட்டு நாம் முடியோம்
செய்யாதன செய்யோம் தீக்குறளை(ச்) சென்றோதோம்
ஐயமும் பிச்சையும் ஆந்தனையும் கை காட்டி
உய்யுமாறெண்ணி உகந்தேலோர் எம்பாவாய்.

vaiyaththu vaazhveergaaL naamum nampaavaikku(ch)
cheyyum kirisaigaL kELeerO paaRkadaluL
paiya(th) thuyinRa paramanadi paadi
neyyuNNOm paaluNNOm naatkaalE neeraadi
maiyittu ezhudhOm malarittu naam mudiyOm
seyyaadhana seyyOm theekkuRaLai(ch) chenROdhOm
aiyamum pichchaiyum aandhanaiyum kai kaatti
uyyumaaReNNi ugandhElOr empaavaai.

LITERAL MEANING (by Dr. V. K. S. N. Raghavan)
Oh People who reside in this world!
May You listen to our austerities, which we are to follow during our Paavai Nonbhu.
(We will observe this routine). We will sing in praise of the holy feet of Paraman (the Supreme Purushan) that has taken to sleep (YoganidhrA) merrily on the milky ocean.
We will refrain from consuming ghee and milk (till the end of our Nonbhu).
At the early small hours of the day (dawn), we will bathe (getting ourselves immersed) in the river;
we will refrain from applying collyrium (anjanam) to our eyes;
we will not decorate our locks of hair (lit. bind our hairs) with flowers; (we will abide by the holy text books (ShaasthrAs);
we will refrain from performing proscribed duties;
we will not speak painful untruth;
we will give liberally alms to those people, who seek for it and even to those, who do not seek for it (to SanyAsis);
we will always contemplate upon the fair method to achieve the aim of purposeful life (Bhagavath-BhAgavatha-AchArya Kaimkaryams); and we will (thus) live a contented life.

(This way, Oh dear girl, You may know our routine). {Refraining from doing wrong acts,
through the path of VairAgyA (dispassion) one should adore the feet of KshIrAbdhisAyin
(PaaRkkadaluL paiya-thyuinRa Paramandi paadi) is what is prescribed/insisted upon in this
second paasuram)}.