Thursday, September 3, 2015

Happy Krishna Jayanthi!!

Tuesday, February 3, 2015

The Kelings in History

Recently there were many disputes among Tamil communities of Malaysia, Singapore and even Indonesia when they are referred as Keling. Many take this as a derogatory remarks hurled at them. A few people had tried to give some explanation on the history of such words. But some other disputes their claims. So in this post, I'll try to put forth as many as historical accounts I can find on the origin of the word.

Keling is a Malay word which referred to the Indian in Malaysia and it has been received in a derogatory manner amongst the Indian in Malaysia at the beginning of twentieth century. However, the Malay consciousness of keling is not new and it happened since the existence of Malay Sultanate in Malacca in 15th century.

It has been used widely in many classical Malay books such as Sulalat al-Salatin, Hikayat Hang Tuah and Hikayat Raja Pasai. According to the 17th century Malay epic Sulalat al-Salatin, “Keling” played a very important role to help the administration of the Malacca Malay Empire. Generally, the word “Keling” has been used mostly with a positive connotation. In Sulalat al-Salatin, the word “Keling” was used 66 times in different contexts.

The book also associates 2 prominent characters with the word keling namely; Mani Purindam and Raja Mundeliar and how they had been assimilated in the Malay society and accepted as part of the high rank officials in the Malacca Empire.

In the modern Malay dictionary, the word “Keling” is used to describe merchants coming from the South Indian subcontinent including Kalinga and Telingana to the Malay Peninsula as early as 3rd century. The Malay dictionary mentioned that this word, especially in the Northern area of Malay Peninsula, refers to the Indians who are Muslims.

The story about “Keling” appeared before the existence of Malacca Empire. It was about Raja Suran, who was the King from India, came to the Malay Peninsula in his military expedition with his soldiers. His army, together with large numbers of elephants and horses, fought hard with the military from Siam and finally, the King succeeded to kill Raja Chulan. Later, Raja Suran married with Prince Onang Kiu, the daughter of Raja Chulan, and the army marched towards Temasik, or known today as Singapore. It has been described that they were skillful fighters from the great Kingdom in India and were involved in the process of colonization and expansion of Indian Empire until it reached Southeast Asia. The armed forces were formidable in both land and sea warfare and won against the Kingdom of Gangga Nagara in Perak, Langgiu in Johore and Temasik.

There are many locations in south-east Asian countries Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia named after the word "Keling". This proves that Kelings has been a big factor in the history in those areas. In Medan, Sumatra Utara, Indonesia, there is a place named as 'Kampung Keling' until now the Indians are referred to as Kelings without any offence. In fact recently when the local government attempted to change the town name to Kampung Madras, Tamils living in the village protested and preferred to be called as Keling.


William Girdlestone Shellabear (1862–1948), the founder of MPH Group, a publication house that was founded on 1890 referred the word “Keling” in his dictionary in the early 20th century as “the native of the eastern coast of British India, especially the Telugus and Tamils”. And R. O. Winstedt of Malay-English Dictionary, added that this word has been taken from the old kingdom of Kalinga in India.

The Dutch "Dagregister" referred to Indian inhabitants of Melaka as "Clings" or "Klingers". One must remember that the Dutch ruled Melaka long before the British landed on this part of the world.

Munshi Abdullah an Indian descendant himself used the word "Keling" in his many literatures especially in his book "Sejarah Melayu". In the 2nd chapter, he narrated that the Chinese emperor referred the Chola King as "Raja Keling". This can be cross referenced in the Chinese literatures as well like in the compilation of the Chinese history book, "China: Five Thousand Years of History and Civilization" edited by The Editorial Committee of Chinese Civilization. Under the chapter, "Maritime Transportation and Trade in the Tang Dynasty", page 603 referring the Indian subcontinent as "The State of Keling". This book gives the earliest recorded dates as A.D.813.

In the "100th volume of Tang Hui Yao" in the 8th year of Yuanhe (813), The Keling State offered "two Sengzhi maids"

In his book, "A Descriptive Dictionary of British Malaya", Nicholas Belfield Dennys mentioned as follows:

Inscription, Indian - An ancient inscription, supposed to date from the thirteenth century, was extant on a sandstone rock at the entrance of Singapore river, on the spot now occupied by the Harbour Master's Offices. Col. Low [J. I. A., Vol. I, p. 89] gives the following account of it:—" The inscription, a fragment of which I possess, was only legible in few places, the character appertaining to the Peninsula of India, and probably it may be described in the Malayan annals in these terms: ' Rajah Suran of Amdan Nagara, after conquering the State of Johore with his Kling troops [Kling is the term applied to the people of Coromandel coast], proceeded to Tamsak. When he returned to his country of Kling or Bejaneegar, he left a stone monument of his victories, on which was an inscription in the language of Hindustan. Tamsak is also called Singhapura.' This was about A.D, 1201. Singhapura. observes Mr. Crawfued, was first settled in A.D, 1160 by Sri Sura Bawana." [See J. I A., Vol. I. p. 89. and M. P. I. C, Vol. I, p. 219 et acq.]

This proves that the word Keling was already in use around A.D, 1201. He continues...

Mr. Maxwell states that at the foot of Bukit Mertajam, Province Wellesley, on the south side, there is a block of granite on which some rude characters hare been traced. The Malays call it batu surat, the rock of the writing. " I believe," he says, " that the inscription has never been deciphered, and that the character has not been identified. When I saw it last (in 1874), it was difficult in places to detect the ancient inscription on the rugged face of the rock, its faint lines contrasting strangely with the deeply-cut initials of Col. Low on the same boulder."

He also gives a lengthy description on the word itself:-

Kling - The name given by the Malays (J. I. A.. Vol. II., p. 10) to the Telinga nation of Southern India, and which appears to be a corruption or abbreviation of the genuine name of the country of this people—Kalinga. So many have settled in Malaya that they form an appreciable portion of the population. Being the only Indian nation familiarly known to the nations of the Archipelago, the word is used by them as a general term for all the people of Hindustan, and for the country itself. The trade and intercourse of the Telingas with the Archipelago is of great but unascertained antiquity, and still goes on. Many Telingas have, from time to time, settled more particularly in the western parts of Malaya, as in Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, and their mixed descendants are tolerably numerous. In Singapore, for example, the Telingas form about one-tenth of the population, and in Penang they are eyen more numerous. It was this people that, in all probability, introduced the Hindu religion, and they seem also to have contributed materially to the spread of Mahommedanism, the majority of the settlers being at present of this persuasion. In the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Portuguese found them carrying on trade at Malacca, and Barbosa, who calls them Chetijs (obviously the "Chitties" of to-day), describes them as " wealthy merchants of Coromandel, who traded in large ships."

A propos of this subject, two interesting communications appeared in the Penang Gazzette under date of 16th September, 1887, the greater portions of which we quote hereunder. Vilayat writes :—

In my edition of Elphinstone's "History of India," p. 242, the following passage occurs:—

"Another branch of the tribe of Chalukya * * * ruled over Calinga, which is the eastern portion of Telingana, extending along the sea from Dravida to Orissa."

"Garrett, in his * Classical Dictionary of India,' says: Kalinga is the name of the sea-coast west of the mouth of the Ganges with the upper part of the Coromandel Coast. The inhabitants are called Kalingas."

"Forbes, in his 'Hindustani Dictionary,' says : Kaling, the name of a country, especially applied to a district on the Coromandel Coast between Cuttack and Madras."

When I first heard the name Kling, I considered it a misnomer, but have changed my opinion for various reasons:—
  1. The people we speak of as Klings cannot properly be called Hindus, as the majority in the Straits will, I believe, be found to be Mahommcdans. This disposes of the religious name.
  2. They cannot be called Tamils, as very many, if not most of them, are Telugus (Telingana) ; thus language fails to meet the difficulty.
  3. Coromandels might be used, but this word is only known as a geographical expression by the Europeans. Natives of India do not use it, that I am aware of.
  4. Dravidians might meet the want of a common name (one in common I mean), but philologists would be horror-struck at the desecration of one of their pet words. Nor is it a word in common use among natives of India.
We are thus compelled to fall back upon the despised word Kling, which, I think, may be satisfactorily accounted for on the following suppositions:—
  1. Penang was originally a part of the Bengal Presidency, or rather was ruled from Bengal.
  2. Officials from Bengal must have brought Bengali servants with them.
  3. These, when the first importations of natives of the south-east coast of India were brought over, would class them as Kaling ; that is, as people coming from the districts known to them as Kaling, south of Bengal.
  4. The next step would be easy— Kaling has a short " a " ; omit it altogether (there are many similar instances in philology), the result is Kling, applied to all natives south of Bengal.
The above appears to me the probable derivation of the name as used here. It should be observed that Forbes gives the word as Kaling and not Kalinga, as spelt by other authors from whom I have quoted.

He also continues by adding...

"Scabeboeus" adds the following remarks:—The word is a most interesting one, and points to a connection between the Straits and India reaching nearly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great, and the only trace of which remains in its continued application to natives of Southern India. It is not used only in the Straits, but all over the Dutch and Portuguese possessions in the East Indies, and its universal application in these parts points to a large trade having been carried on between Southern India and the Eastern Seas. It is erroneously derived from Telinga or Telingapatam, once a port on the Madras Coast, from which the sea has receded, and which is now an inland town about 2 miles from the shore. The name of this port signifies that there was a community or nation bearing the name of Talingas or Kalingas, and it is from the name of this people that our word is derived. Indian archaeologists are well aware of the existence of a large nation in Southern India who worshipped Siva, and who called themselves Kalingas. Some record of this nation is found in the oldest of known Indian inscriptions— those at Khalsi—which are probably the moat interesting in the East, as demonstrating the connection of India and Greece, by their mention of the names of Ptolemy and Alexander.

Evidences of this connection are abundant in Greek literature ; but these are the only clear ones on the Indian side. The country that this nation inhabited is now known as Northern Circars—the Telugu Coast of the Bay of Bengal. No doubt emigration and trade from this part of India was then more extensive than any other, and the word Kalinga was applied in general to all emigrants from India. In the Journal of the Indian Archipelago, in an article on the Sijara Malayu—a. collection of Malay legends—it ia stated the word Kaling is used generally for India. The Klings of the Straits do not come so much from the Northern Circars as from districts about Tanjore, and from purely Tamil districts; and the classes who take domestic service in the Straits—Hindus or Lubbais—are never known to serve Europeans in India.

Two quotations which I have found with reference to the word are of great interest; one is from the translation of Mr. Senart of the Khalsi inscription, and is as follows;—" Great is Kalinga, conquered by King Pujadasi, beloved of Devas. Hundreds of thouaanda have been carried off. Immediately the King, on learning of the conquest of Kalinga, turned to religion, &c." This dates about 250 B.C..

The other is from a French translation of a narrative of a Chinese traveller, Huen Tsiang (Polerins Bouddistes); it runs:— "After having travelled 1,500 li, he arrived at the Kingdom of Kalinga, In ancient times the Kingdom of Kalinga possessed a dense population; insomuch that in the streets shoulders rubbed and waggon wheels jostled; if the passengers but lifted their sleeves an awning of immense extent was formed . . . ." The narrative of these travels was written by the traveller about 640 of our era, and though travellers' tales are proverbially liable to being taken at something less than par value, this ancient Chinese traveller seems, in the opinion of his French translator. to have been not only a prince among pioneers, but an observant and truthful narrator of what he saw.

In the book; A History of Classical Malay Literature, the author Liaw Yock Fang described the Hindu influences in Indonesia where itis known as Serat Rama Keling in Jawa, Madura and Yogyakarta.

Kenneth R. Hall in his book A History of Early Southeast Asia describes a group of merchants of Bandar Hilir as "Another group, hailing from Tuban, Japara, Sunda and Lampug, lived in the Upeh quarter with chief Utimuti Raja, though apart from the Keling, Chinese, and Gujarati residential enclaves..."

In Asiatic Researches or Transactions of the Society Instituted in Bengal - Volume 10, which was published in London in 1811, and describes the classical Malay dramas, you may find stories of 5 Pandava brothers. Here the Indian drama is said to be translated from the Keling culture and known as the history of a Keling Rajah.

There are a huge number of reference points in the historical books available to show that the word Keling had been used loosely to identify Indians in general throughout this region and not limited to Malaysia.


Various place names in Malaysia contain the word keling for historical reasons, e.g. Tanjong Keling., Kampong Keling, and Bukit Keling, etc.

In Penang, the Kapitan Keling Mosque, situated on the corner of Buckingham Street and Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling (Pitt Street), is one of the oldest mosques in George Town.

In Singapore, there is a road in Jurong Industrial Estate called Tanjong Kling Road which was derived from the word 'Keling'.

In Jepara Regency, Central Java, Indonesia, there is a subdistrict called Keling. Locals link the location with the historical 6th century Kalingga Kingdom.

In Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia, there's a place called Pacar Keling. It's an area in the subdistrict Tambaksari, Surabaya. Phrase 'Pacar' itself means 'Lover' in Bahasa Indonesia.

In Philippines, there is a district in the North Luzon by the name of Kalinga.

Apart from these locations, there are literally hundreds of locations, villages and structures  throughout South East Asia that carry the name of Kalinga in various forms such as Keling and Kling.


The word “keling” in Malaysia has become a socially undesirable term and it has a derogatory connotation for Malaysians of Indian origin. Though the word existed in the Malay vocabulary since 15th century, there was an attempt to remove it from the Malay dictionary due to its negative connotations.

Many attempts have been made over the years to erase it from the Malay vocabulary. One was by a group of Indian Muslim community in Malaysia to remove the word “keling” from the third edition of Kamus Dewan, a Malay dictionary which was published by the Malaysian government agency, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP). It happened in July 30th 2003 when the chairman of Angkatan Pelopor India Muslim Selangor and Wilayah Persekutuan (APIM), filed the summons in High Court against Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka and five others over the use of the term “keling” which, according to them, was offensive and humiliating to Malaysians Indians. He said that the word was in conflict to the Federal Constitution, National Principles (Rukun Negara) and the Publication and Printing Presses Act 1984 (Amended 1987).

This phenomenon is not only happened in Malaysia, but also happened in Singapore. On 1st August 1921, The Straits Times, one of the newspapers in Singapore carried out a notice from Municipal Office entitled “Kling Street - Change of Name”. In the advertisement, it was announced that the name of the Kling Street will be changed to Chulia Street starting from 1st January 1922. It was believed that the name had been changed due to the suggestion by the Indian Association of Singapore.

There were many incidents of Indian migrations. The latest migrations of Indians happened during the British reign in early 1800's. The British brought in many workers to work in Malaya in many industries mainly in rubber plantations. At the same time they also had brought in criminals and Indian freedom fighters to break the movement. This workers group of Indians do not know the local history and assumed that the word was derived from the sound of chains of criminal's feet. They failed to understand that the term was used to all early Indians who came from the Indian subcontinent.

Some argued that it refers only to those who came from the Kalinga city and should not be used to the general Indians. Till today the term is still considered derogatory by the Indian communities in this region.

I truly believe that if we learn the history of the word "Keling" and how it had affected the local community in the past, it will boost the morale of the present day Indians.

  • A Descriptive Dictionary of British Malaya, Nicholas Belfield Dennys -
  • Indo-Portuguese History: Old Issues, New Questions
  • The Role of the Keling during the 15th Century Malacca Sultanate, - Abdur-Rahman Mohamed Amin and Ahmad Murad Merican
  • A Historical Perspective on the Word "Keling" -
  • The Penang Gazette, 16th September 1887
  • International Journal of Social Science and Humanity
  • China: Five Thousand Years of History and Civilization
  • W. G. Shellabear, Malay-English Vocabulary, Singapore
  • Singapore Infopedia -
  • The Keling in Malay Discourses: The Study of Narratives in Selected Classical Malay Prose Epics

Thursday, January 22, 2015

Thou Shalt Not Kill

Recently certain churches in USA had claimed that the early Christian churches had a mistake when translating the 10 Commandments into English. Their main concern was the 6th Commandment which says ‘Thou Shalt Not Kill.’

According to the churches, it should be translated as ‘Thou shalt not murder.’ They say its OK to kill any animal or even human being (as soldiers or police in the line of duty) but not murder (illegal killing).

Please refer to the links provided at the bottom of this page

We are here not to question their opinion. This post has nothing to do with this claim but to honor cows for the recent "Maattu Ponggal" festival. Hindus respect cows as mother. The best explanation on why Hindus are abstained from eating cow (beef) was given by Jagad Guru Srila Prabhupada to Cardinal Jean Danielou at a monastic retreat near Paris, in July of 1973.

The transcript below was prepared by ISKCON based on the entire conversation.

Srila Prabhupada:
Jesus Christ said, “Thou shalt not kill.” So why is it that the Christian people are engaged in animal killing?
Cardinal Danielou:
Certainly in Christianity it is forbidden to kill, but we believe that there is a difference between the life of a human being and the life of the beasts. The life of a human being is sacred because man is made in the image of God; therefore, to kill a human being is forbidden.
Srila Prabhupada:
But the Bible does not simply say, “Do not kill the human being.” It says broadly, “Thou shalt not kill.”
Cardinal Danielou:
We believe that only human life is sacred.
Srila Prabhupada:
That is your interpretation. The commandment is “Thou shalt not kill.”
Cardinal Danielou:
It is necessary for man to kill animals in order to have food to eat.
Srila Prabhupada:
No. Man can eat grains, vegetables, fruits, and milk.
Cardinal Danielou:
No flesh?
Srila Prabhupada:
No. Human beings are meant to eat vegetarian food. The tiger does not come to eat your fruits. His prescribed food is animal flesh. But man’s food is vegetables, fruits, grains, and milk products. So how can you say that animal killing is not a sin?
Cardinal Danielou:
We believe it is a question of motivation. If the killing of an animal is for giving food to the hungry, then it is justified.
Srila Prabhupada:
But consider the cow: we drink her milk; therefore, she is our mother. Do you agree?
Cardinal Danielou:
Yes, surely.
Srila Prabhupada:
So if the cow is your mother, how can you support killing her? You take the milk from her, and when she’s old and cannot give you milk, you cut her throat. Is that a very humane proposal? In India those who are meat-eaters are advised to kill some lower animals like goats, pigs, or even buffalo. But cow killing is the greatest sin. In preaching Krishna consciousness we ask people not to eat any kind of meat, and my disciples strictly follow this principle. But if, under certain circumstances, others are obliged to eat meat, then they should eat the flesh of some lower animal. Don’t kill cows. It is the greatest sin. And as long as a man is sinful, he cannot understand God. The human being’s main business is to understand God and to love Him. But if you remain sinful, you will never be able to understand God—what to speak of loving Him.
Cardinal Danielou:
I think that perhaps this is not an essential point. The important thing is to love God. The practical commandments can vary from one religion to the next.
Srila Prabhupada:
So, in the Bible God’s practical commandment is that you cannot kill; therefore killing cows is a sin for you.
Cardinal Danielou:
God says to the Indians that killing is not good, and he says to the Jews that…
Srila Prabhupada:
No, no. Jesus Christ taught, “Thou shalt not kill.” Why do you interpret this to suit your own convenience?
Cardinal Danielou:
But Jesus allowed the sacrifice of the Paschal Lamb.
Srila Prabhupada:
But he never maintained a slaughterhouse.
Cardinal Danielou:
[Laughs.] No, but he did eat meat.
Srila Prabhupada:
When there is no other food, someone may eat meat in order to keep from starving. That is another thing. But it is most sinful to regularly maintain slaughterhouses just to satisfy your tongue. Actually, you will not even have a human society until this cruel practice of maintaining slaughterhouses is stopped. And although animal killing may sometimes be necessary for survival, at least the mother animal, the cow, should not be killed. That is simply human decency. In the Krishna consciousness movement our practice is that we don’t allow the killing of any animals. Krishna says, patram puspam phalam toyam yo me bhaktya prayacchati: “Vegetables, fruits, milk, and grains should be offered to Me in devotion.” (Bhagavad-Gita 9.26) We take only the remnants of Krishna’s food (prasadam). The trees offer us many varieties of fruits, but the trees are not killed. Of course, one living entity is food for another living entity, but that does not mean you can kill your mother for food. Cows are innocent; they give us milk. You take their milk—and then kill them in the slaughterhouse. This is sinful.

Srila Prabhupada, Christianity’s sanction of meat-eating is based on the view that lower species of life do not have a soul like the human being’s.
Srila Prabhupada:
That is foolishness. First of all, we have to understand the evidence of the soul’s presence within the body. Then we can see whether the human being has a soul and the cow does not. What are the different characteristics of the cow and the man? If we find a difference in characteristics, then we can say that in the animal there is no soul. But if we see that the animal and the human being have the same characteristics, then how can you say that the animal has no soul? The general symptoms are that the animal eats, you eat; the animal sleeps, you sleep; the animal mates, you mate; the animal defends, and you defend. Where is the difference?
Cardinal Danielou:
We admit that in the animal there may be the same type of biological existence as in men, but there is no soul. We believe that the soul is a human soul.
Srila Prabhupada:
Our Bhagavad-Gita says sarva-yonisu, “In all species of life the soul exists.” The body is like a suit of clothes. You have black clothes; I am dressed in saffron clothes. But within the dress you are a human being, and I am also a human being. Similarly, the bodies of the different species are just like different types of dress. There are soul, a part and parcel of God. Suppose a man has two sons, not equally meritorious. One may be a Supreme Court judge and the other may be a common laborer, but the father claims both as his sons. He does not make the distinction that the son who is a judge is very important and the worker-son is not important. And if the judge-son says, “My dear father, your other son is useless; let me cut him up and eat him,” will the father allow this?
Cardinal Danielou:
Certainly not, but the idea that all life is part of the life of God is difficult for us to admit. There is a great difference between human life and animal life.
Srila Prabhupada:
That difference is due to the development of consciousness. In the human body there is developed consciousness. Even a tree has a soul, but a tree’s consciousness is not very developed. If you cut a tree it does not resist. Actually, it does resist, but only to a very small degree. There is a scientist named Jagadish Chandra Bose who has made a machine which shows that trees and plants are able to feel pain when they are cut. And we can see directly that when someone comes to kill an animal, it resists, it cries, it makes a horrible sound. So it is a matter of the development of consciousness. But the soul is there within all living beings.
Cardinal Danielou:
But metaphysically, the life of man is sacred. Human beings think on a higher platform than the animals do.
Srila Prabhupada:
What is that higher platform? The animal eats to maintain his body, and you also eat in order to maintain your body. The cow eats grass in the field, and the human being eats meat from a huge slaughterhouse full of modern machines. But just because you have big machines and a ghastly scene, while the animal simply eats grass, this does not mean that you are so advanced that only within your body is there a soul and that there is not a soul within the body of the animal. That is illogical. We can see that the basic characteristics are the same in the animal and the human being.
Cardinal Danielou:
But only in human beings do we find a metaphysical search for the meaning of life.
Srila Prabhupada:
Yes. So metaphysically search out why you believe that there is no soul within the animal—that is metaphysics. If you are thinking metaphysically, that’s all right. But if you are thinking like an animal, then what is the use of your metaphysical study? Metaphysical means “above the physical” or, in other words, “spiritual.” In the Bhagavad-gita Krishna says, sarva-yonisu kaunteya: [Bg. 14.4] “In every living being there is a spirit soul.” That is metaphysical understanding. Now either you accept Krishna’s teachings as metaphysical, or you’ll have to take a third-class fool’s opinion as metaphysical. Which do you accept?
Cardinal Danielou:
But why does God create some animals who eat other animals? There is a fault in the creation, it seems.
Srila Prabhupada:
It is not a fault. God is very kind. If you want to eat animals, then He’ll give you full facility. God will give you the body of a tiger in your next life so that you can eat flesh very freely. “Why are you maintaining slaughterhouses? I’ll give you fangs and claws. Now eat.” So the meat-eaters are awaiting such punishment. The animal-eaters become tigers, wolves, cats, and dogs in their next life—to get more facility.
Transcript courtesy of: ~ ISKCON

Saturday, January 17, 2015

The World Keeps Vedic Time

World Vedic Heritage By: P.N. Oak

The uniform worldwide tradition of time-management and the Sanskrit terminology associated with it, is yet another emphatic proof of the prevalence of a uniform , unitary Vedic culture throughout the world from time immemorial. The Hindu alias Vedic almanac is the ancient most because it adheres to the Srushti-Samvat i.e, the time -computation from the creation of the cosmos. Nothing can be more ancient.

What is more, anybody undertaking any Vedic ritual at any time in any part of the world has to recall and repeat the entire computation of the aeons, eras, years and days that have passed from the moment of the creation to the day of the ritual. Thus a continual, up-to-date, day -to -day computation uttered through billions of months down the ages, day -in and day –out, all over the world has ensured an unerring tally of eternal time, A quick 
Review of the cosmic time tally is part of the Sankalpa uttered at Vedic rituals. 

People retaining the Vedic tradition are currently identified as Hindus. And since Vedic-tradition has been a world-heritage every human being is, in a way, a Hindu, in Modern parlance. 

It was during that long stretch of universal administration that a uniform time-calculation system and terminology was introduced. The world still sticks to it and yet very few seem to be aware of it.

The word Time itself is a corruption of the Sanskrit word ‘Samay’. That was pronounced as ‘Tamay’ and later as ‘Time.’ 

Take the word ‘calendar’ itself. That is the Sanskrit word ‘Kalantar’ (कालांतर) which signifies a chart detailing the divisions of time (namely the day, week, month and year.

Likewise the word clock is Sanskrit ‘Kala-ka’ (काल-क)i.e a recorder-cum-indicator of time.

Let us know start from the split-second to find out how the entire time computation around the world is all of the Vedic tradition.

The 60 second, 60 minute calculation is Vedic mathematics because according to the 60 vipalas make one ‘pala’ and 60 ‘palas’ make one ‘ghati’(i.e. 24 minutes). The word ‘second’ itself is a malpronunciation of the Sanskrit word ‘Kshan’(क्षण). The word Minute is also corruption of sanskrit word ‘Mit’(मित).

The term ‘hour’ is a malpronunciation of the Sanskrit word (होरा)’hora’ (which is made up of 2 ½ ghatis).

60 Pal = 1 Ghati (24 Minutes)
2.5 Ghati = 1 Hora (=1 Hour)
Below in detail -
1 Krati = 34,000th of a second
1 Truti = 300th of a second
2 Truti = 1 Luv
2 Luv = 1 Kshana
30 Kshana = 1 Vipal
60 Vipal = 1 Pal
60 Pal = 1 Ghati (24 Minutes)
2.5 Ghati = 1 Hora (1 Hour)
2.5 Ghati = 1 Divas (1 Day)
7 Divas = 1 Saptah (1 Week)
4 Saptah = 1 Maas (1 Month)
2 Maas = 1 Ritu (1 Season)
3 Ritu = 1 Ayana (6 months)
6 Ritu = 1 Varsha (1 Year)
100 Varsha = 1 Shatabda (1 Century)
10 Shatabda = 1 Sahasrabda
432 Sahasrabda = 1 Kali Yuga (432,000 human years)
2 Kali Yuga = 1 Dwaapar Yuga (864,000 human years)
3 Kali Yuga = 1 Treta Yuga (1,296,000 human years)
4 Kali Yuga = 1 Satya Yuga (1,728,000 human years)
10 Kali Yuga = 1 Maha Yuga (4,320,000 human years)
1000 Maha Yuga = 1 Kalpa (4.32 Billion human years)
The word ‘day’ is the corrupt form of the Sanskrit word 'din’ (दिनम्).

All the days of the week too follow the order laid down by Vedic tradition wherein each day is named after the members of our solar system in a specified order. For Instance. Sunday (the day named after the Sun) follows Saturday (the day of Saturn). Monday (which is Moonday) follows Sunday and so on. 

Tb whole world couldn’t have followed this system without the slightest egoistic or chauvinistic murmur from anywhere, had it not been subject to a common Vedic administration. 

After the week comes the month. The division of the year into 12 Parts (each or which is known as month, corresponding to the twelve Zodiacal signs) is devised by the Vedic system and is unquestioningly followed all over the world. 

Even the Sanskrit term ‘mas’ (मास) signifying a month is still used in Europe. The European terms Christmas and Michaelmas signify the months in which the celebrations concerning Christ (alias chrisn)and Michael are observed. Michael is Sanskrit Mukul.

The names September, October, November and December are the Sanskrit words (सप्तांबर)Saptambar, (अष्टांबर)Ashtambhar, (नवांबर)Navambar, (दशांबर)Dashambar where (अंबर)’ambar’ is the Sanskrit term for the Zodiac while the numbers (सप्ता) sapta, (अष्टा)ashta, (नवा) nava and (दशा) dasha, signify the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th months respectively.

If the remaining eight months are not easily identifiable as Sanskrit that is because history always leaves ruins in its wake for various reasons. It is like an old man whose teeth have wide gaps. The two rows of well-set teeth of his childhood do not remain intact as age advances. But the remaining teeth and dented gums do lead to the conclusion that once the man did have a full set of teeth.

The same may be said of the months. From the four months still clearly identifiable as Sanskrit. It can be safely deduced that the remaining eight months too had Sanskrit names. 

Among the others a few more can still be identified as Sanskrit on a closer look. The name Januarius is the original name, of which January is an abbreviation. Here it may be recalled that in Latin the name of God Ganesh came to be spelled as Janus.So even the Januray beginning of the year is rooted in the Vedic tradition of Ganesh worship. Even the name Januarius misbelieved to be Latin in the Sanskrit term ‘gana-raya-eash’ ()signifying Lord Ganesh. 

The name of the succeeding month February wag spelled by the Romans as Februarius. That is a malpronounciation of the Sanskrit word Pravaresh. From the Sanskrit word ‘Pitar’ changing to' father' in European pronunciation we know that European 'f’ replaces Sanskrit ‘P’ Consequently Februarius was (प्रवरेश)Pravaresh. (प्रवर) Pravar in Sanskrit signifies a sage. So the term Pravaresh alias Februarius signified God as the Lord of Sages.

The term March is from (मरीचि) ‘Marichi’ -one of the Sanskrit names of the Sun. Since that month marks the beginning of longer alias a kind of waxing of the sunlight hours it was named after the Sun. Another explanation is that March signifies a start i.e marching orders. Since in ancient practice the beginning of the year coincided with that period, the opening month was named March. 

These clues should help scholars to trace the Vedic origin of the term April, May, June and July or either Sanskrit substitutes.It could be that May is named after Maya - i.e. illusion(in Sanskrit), the Holy Spirit which consorted with the Creator to create the cosmos. 

It is commonly believed that the name July originates from Julius Caesar and Augustus from Augustus Caesar. These could be explanations concocted by latter-day scholars. Muslim and Christian histories bristle with such concoctions . By that token other Roman emperors too should have had the remaining ten months named after themselves. Were they less egoistic or ambitious?. 

The term August and even the imperial name ‘Augustus’ derive from Sage Agastya (अगस्त्य) an ancient seer and Vedic scholar of world renown who was known for his impressive personality. The term ‘august personality’ and ‘august presence’ derive from that sage. The Agastya had a world impact is additional proof that the Vedas were revered and recited all over the world in ancient times.

December was observed as Chrisn-mas because Chrisn has mentioned in the Bhagwad Geeta that all months Margasheersh (i.e. December) represents him.
Chrisnmas ()has been so named in Vedic tradition also because that is the last month of long, dark nights and the word Krishna signifies darkness too.

In our own day September ranks as the ninth month though its Sanskrit name proclaims it to be the seventh month. What explains this anomaly?

September could be the seventh month only if March is counted as the first month. And actually all around the ancient world, in Rome, in England etc the year began only in March. It was only from 1752 A.D. that England formally switched on to January 1 as the New Year Day by an act of Parliament. Earlier its New Year Day used to be march 25.

The European tradition of counting the hours of the day from the midnight hour originated in India after the Mahabharata War, taking the time of Krishna’s birth as its base since Krishna was revered throughout the world and Krishna’s birth symbolized the end of a dark period of tyranny.

Another explanation is that the Vedic administrative headquarters for Europe used to be in London in the British Isles. London meridian time is 5½ hours behind the Indian time. When the sun rises at 5.30 a.m. India changes the date as per vedic practice. At that time it is midnight hour in London. Therefore, the vedic administration there cultivated the tradition of reckoning the day from the midnight hour. Forgetting that, our own times Indian bureaucracy reckons its official date to commence from the midnight hour.

Even the terms a.m. and p.m. have a Sanskrit connotation and not English as is easily assumed. The letters a.m. and p.m. are the initials of the hoary Sanskrit expressions (आरोहणम् मार्तडस्य्) Arohanam Martandasaya (i.e. the climbing of the sun) and (पतनम् मार्तडस्य्)Patanam Martandasaya (i.e. the falling of the sun)

London has been a very ancient Vedic capital. Its ancient Sanskrit name was Nondonium which is Sanskrit for a ‘Pleasing Habitation’. In Roman time, it was misspelled as Londonium. Later this was abbreviated to London.

The current trend of the academic world is to regard the Vedic era as the most primitive. Contrarily it was an era of almost divine excellence in every respect because of billions of years ago divinity itself provided the first proto-types of humanity. Hereunder is that split second scale of ancient Vedic calculation.
1 Paramaanu = 26.3 µs (Approx.)
2 Paramaanu = 1 Anu (57.7 µs)
3 Anu = 1 Trasarenu (158 µs)
3 Trasarenu = 1 Truti (474 µs)
100 Truti = 1 Vedh (47.4 ms)
3 Vedh = 1 Lav (0.14 second)
3 Lav = 1 Nimesh (0.43 second)
3 Nimesh = 1 Kshan (1.28 second)
5 Kshan = 1 Kaashthaa (6.4 seconds)
15 Kaashthaa = 1 Laghu (96 seconds)
15 Laghu = 1 Dand (24 minutes)
2 Dand = 1 Muhurtha (48 minutes)
30 Muhūrta = 1 Ahorātram (1 Day)

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